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Hall effect (Read 2314 times)
Gerrit-Jan Linker
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Hall effect
16.01.11 at 16:44:14
Hall effect
The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the conductor and a magnetic field perpendicular to the current.
The Hall effect comes about due to the nature of the current in a conductor.  
Current consists of the movement of many small charge carriers, typically electrons, holes, ions or all three. Moving charges experience a force, called the Lorentz force, when a magnetic field is present that is perpendicular to their motion.  
When such a magnetic field is absent, the charges follow approximately straight, 'line of sight' paths between collisions with impurities, phonons, etc. However, when a perpendicular magnetic field is applied, their paths between collisions are curved so that moving charges accumulate on one face of the material. This leaves equal and opposite charges exposed on the other face, where there is a scarcity of mobile charges.  
The result is an asymmetric distribution of charge density across the Hall element that is perpendicular to both the 'line of sight' path and the applied magnetic field. The separation of charge establishes an electric field that opposes the migration of further charge, so a steady electrical potential builds up for as long as the charge is flowing.
The Quantum Hall Effect (QHE) is the quantum mechanical analoque of the Hall effect.
The Hall coefficient measures uniquely the charge carrier density or the magnetoresistance which provides information about mobility.
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« Last Edit: 18.12.13 at 08:15:41 by Gerrit-Jan Linker »  

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