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Spectroscopy (Read 9766 times)
Gerrit-Jan Linker
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Spectroscopy
13.09.09 at 10:23:20
 
Spectroscopy
 
Traditionally spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between visible radiation and matter as a function of wavelength (λ). With passage of time spectroscopy broadened to include studies not only with light but also with other types of electromagnetic radiation (X-ray, ultraviolet, infrared, microwave and radio-frequency radiation)
 
Types of spectroscopy:
  • Absorption spectroscopy
    Absorption of electromagnetic radiation at a characteric frequency corresponding to the energy of transition between the relevant energy levels.
  • Acoustic spectroscopy
  • ARPES: Angle Resolved Photo Emission Spectroscopy
  • AAS: Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
  • Auger Spectroscopy
    A method used to study surfaces of materials on a micro-scale. It is often used in connection with electron microscopy.
  • Cavity ring down spectroscopy
  • Circular Dichroism spectroscopy
  • Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS)
  • Dielectric spectroscopy
  • Dual polarisation interferometry
    Measures the real and imaginary components of the complex refractive index
  • Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS)
  • Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) / Electron Spin Resonance (ESR)
  • Flame
  • Fluorescence
    http://www.oraxcel.com/cgi-bin/yabb2/YaBB.pl?num=1267103330
  • Force spectroscopy
  • Fourier transform spectroscopy
    An efficient method for processing spectra data obtained using interferometers. Nearly all infrared spectroscopy techniques (such as FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are based on Fourier transforms.
  • Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)
  • Hadron spectroscopy  
    Studies the energy/mass spectrum of hadrons according to spin, parity, and other particle properties. Baryon spectroscopy and meson spectroscopy are both types of hadron spectroscopy.
  • Inelastic electron tunnelling spectroscopy (IETS)  
    Uses the changes in current due to inelastic electron-vibration interaction at specific energies which can also measure optically forbidden transitions.
  • Inelastic neutron scattering  
    Is similar to Raman spectroscopy, but uses neutrons instead of photons.
  • Infrared absorption spectroscopy
    IR radiation can be used to determine the vibrational structure of a system.
  • Laser spectroscopy  
    Uses lasers and other types of coherent emission sources, such as optical parametric oscillators, for selective excitation of atomic or molecular species.
  • LD: Linear dichroism
    http://www.oraxcel.com/cgi-bin/yabb2/YaBB.pl?num=1300903730/0#0
  • Mass Spectrometry
    Primarily use is to detmine the mass of molecules and its fragments.
  • Mechanical spectroscopy  
    Involves interactions with macroscopic vibrations, such as phonons. An example is acoustic spectroscopy, involving sound waves.
  • Mössbauer
    http://www.oraxcel.com/cgi-bin/yabb2/YaBB.pl?num=1246540297
  • Near Infrared (NIR)
  • Neutron diffraction
    Main use for determination of structures.
  • Neutron spin echo spectroscopy  
    Measures internal dynamics in proteins and other soft matter systems
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
    Radiofrequency radiation can be used to explore the reorientations of the nucleus in a magnetic field. It gives information on the molecular structure including the chemical environment, connectivity and internuclear separations.
  • Optical conductivity spectroscopy
  • PAC: Perturbed Angle Correlation spectroscopy
  • Photoacoustic spectroscopy  
    Measures the sound waves produced upon the absorption of radiation.
  • PES: Photoemission spectroscopy
  • Photothermal spectroscopy  
    Measures heat evolved upon absorption of radiation.
  • Raman
    Raman Spectroscopy
    http://www.oraxcel.com/cgi-bin/yabb2/YaBB.pl?num=1201164126
    Raman effect  
    http://www.oraxcel.com/cgi-bin/yabb2/YaBB.pl?num=1250026349/0#0
  • Terahertz spectroscopy  
    Uses wavelengths above infrared spectroscopy and below microwave or millimeter wave measurements.
  • Time-resolved spectroscopy  
    Is the spectroscopy of matter in situations where the properties are changing with time.
  • Thermal infrared spectroscopy  
  • Ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy
    UV radiation can be used to determine the electronic structure of a system.
  • Ultra fast laser spectroscopy
  • Visible
  • X-ray

    • XRD: X-Ray Diffraction  
      Main use for determination of structures.
    • XPS: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
    • XAS: X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy
      X-ray radiation can be used to determine the electronic structure of a system.


 
Source:
Spectroscopy Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spectroscopy
Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, Skoog, West, Holler, 5th ed.
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« Last Edit: 08.02.15 at 19:49:08 by Gerrit-Jan Linker »  

Gerrit-Jan Linker
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Electromagnetic spectrum employed for spectroscopy
Reply #1 - 13.09.09 at 11:38:59
 
Electromagnetic spectrum employed for spectroscopy
 

  • X-Ray:  
    wavelength 10E-9 - 10E-12 m
    wavenumber 10E+7 - 10E+10 cm-1  : inner electron quantum states
     
  • Ultraviolet-visible / Vacuum ultraviolet :  
    wavelength 10E-6 - 10E-8 m  
    wavenumber 10E+4 - 10E+6 cm-1: outer electron quantum states
    Visible is the domain of interband excitations.
     
  • Infrared :  
    wavelength 10E-4 - 10E-6 m
    wavenumber 10E+2 - 10E+4 cm-1: molecular vibration quatum states
     
    Energy of infrared radiation is generally not sufficient to cause electronic transitions but can induce transitions in the vibrational and rotational states associated with the ground electronic state of the molecule.
    Nearly all molecules absorb infrared radiation (with the exception of e.g. O2, N2, Cl2)
    IR is the domain of intraband (free carrier) excitations.
     
  • Microwave:  
    wavelength 10E-1 - 10E-3 m:  
    wavenumber 10E-1 - 10E+1 cm-1
    molecular rotation quantum states
     
  • Radio:  
    wavelength 10+2 - 10+0 m: magnetically induced spin states
    wavenumber: 10E-4 - 10E-2 cm-1

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« Last Edit: 28.11.09 at 23:06:12 by Gerrit-Jan Linker »  

Gerrit-Jan Linker
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Spectroscopy: frequency and time domain
Reply #2 - 08.04.12 at 20:35:49
 
Spectroscopy: frequency and time domain
 
Frequency domain ~ Energy
Time domain ~ Phase
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Gerrit-Jan Linker
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